A frequently overlooked area of construction design is the selection of appropriate construction materials for the establishment. This chapter provides guidelines for construction and the selection of construction materials that you may wish to consider when making modifications to your current establishment or building a new one.

1. Building Construction Materials for Rooms (Finished Surfaces)

Production and storage areas need to be constructed with materials that are readily and thoroughly cleaned. Product in production and storage areas is at risk for contamination from indirect contact with materials used for construction of the building. In order to be readily and thoroughly cleaned, building construction materials in production and storage areas must be:

  • Rigid and durable.
  • Non -toxic and non -corrosive.
  • Impervious to moisture.
  • A light, solid color such as white.
  • Smooth or textured with an easily cleaned, open pattern, for example, a pattern where the veins and depressed areas are continuous or have an outlet and are not enclosed.

In addition, consider the following guidelines for selecting construction materials:

  • In non -production and non –storage areas, building construction materials should be easy to clean thoroughly.
  • Special consideration should be given before using wood as a construction material.
  • Wood is absorbent and can absorb not only water but other substances including chemicals that create a risk for contamination of meat or poultry products.
  • Wood is easily damaged and may create wood particles (splinters) that contaminate meat or poultry products.
  • If wood is used as a construction material in exposed product areas of the official establishment, it is recommended that the wood be milled smooth and completely sealed with a coating to prevent the wood from adulterating meat or poultry product. The coating should be able to be readily and thoroughly cleaned durable, rigid , impervious to moisture, non -toxic, and non -corrosive.
  • The use of hot linseed oil to treat or coat wood in exposed product areas is not recommended because it promotes the growth of molds and fungi.

2. Floors

In addition to any obvious debris on a floor, product can become contaminated by the flooring or microorganisms living in debris in tiny crevices in the floor. In order to avoid these sources of contamination, consider the following guidelines when selecting and installing flooring in your establishment:

  • Floors in areas where product is handled or stored should be constructed of durable, easily clean able materials, and be impervious to moisture.
  • Commonly used materials are concrete, quarry tile, brick, and synth etic material.
  • Floors should be installed and maintained to reduce the likelihood of cracks, depressions, or other low areas that would accumulate moisture.
  • Floors where operations are conducted should have a slip -resistant surface. Good results are obtained by using brick or concrete floors with abrasive p articles embedded in the surface. Concrete floors should have a rough finish .
  • Floors should be sloped to avoid puddles or depressions with in the slope where water will stand.